Compressors Major Inspection & Overhaul
Compressors Major Inspection & Overhaul
Maximum efficiency, reliability, and longevity of compressors are of great concern to many industries. These objectives can only be achieved by understanding the characteristics, selection criteria, sealing arrangements, common problems, repair techniques as well as their preventive and predictive maintenance. This course will give a strong background on the theory of operation and explain how to install, troubleshoot, overhaul, and repair all types of compressors. Participants will also learn how to service and maintain compressor components used in any of the process industries such as Oil and Gas, Power and Manufacturing. Dry gas seal its operating principals, maintenance and troubleshooting will be also explained. Participants will be able to analyze and troubleshoot compressor failure and identify the various maintenance & repair methods used. Also, they will recognize and implement various preventive and predictive maintenance techniques and strategies used for compressors.
Who Should Attend?
This course is a must for those who work with mechanical and rotating equipment at industrial plants, petrochemical plants, process plants, utilities, production oil/gas field, or manufacturing facilities, general maintenance personnel, first line supervisors and engineers will find this course extremely useful.
Course duration: 5 days
The course will be conducted with formal lectures, case studies and interactive worked examples will be provided. This training course includes the following training methodologies as a percentage of the total tuition hours:-
50 % Lectures
30 % Case Studies & Practical Exercises
20 % Videos and General Discussions
The course instructor may modify the above training methodology during the course for technical reason.
Upon successful completion of this course the participant should be able to:
- Describe the working principle of centrifugal and reciprocating compressors.
- Gain a thorough understanding of compressor surge and surge prevention systems.
- Define the items that must be considered when performing centrifugal and reciprocating compressors maintenance.
- Describe the type of defects that are found in centrifugal and reciprocating compressors components during inspection.
- Identify causes for the defect
- List the corrective actions concerning the defect.
- Describe the checks and inspections performed during centrifugal compressor disassembly and reassembly.
- Describe the proper method for cleaning and inspecting various centrifugal compressor components.
- Gain a thorough understanding of the various types of sealing arrangements used in centrifugal and reciprocating compressors.
- Determine the maintenance required to minimize centrifugal and reciprocating compressor downtime, operating cost and maximize the efficiency, reliability and useful life.
- Understand the mechanical design of dry gas seal
- Learn the principles of operation of dry gas seals
- Learn the up-to date maintenance of the dry gas seal
- Learn the failure analysis and troubleshooting of the dry gas seal.
1) General theory
- Course Introduction
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws
- Boyle’s Law
- Charles’ Law
- Avogadro’s Law
- Perfect Gas Formula
- Vapor Pressure
- Gas and Vapor
- Partial Pressures
- Critical Conditions
- Gas Mixtures
- Efficiency, power and head energy
- Inter-cooling; reasons
- Compressor Types and Applications
- Introduction to the compressor types
- How a centrifugal compressor works
- How a positive displacement compressor works
- Different between dynamic and positive displacement compressor
- How screw compressor works
- How lobe compressors works
- How a reciprocating compressor works
- Dynamic Compressors Technology
- Centrifugal compressors technology
- Axial compressors overview
- Principle of operation of centrifugal compressors, single-stage (low ratio) centrifugal compressors, multi-stage horizontally split compressors, multi-stage (barrel) centrifugal compressors and multi-stage integral gear centrifugal compressors.
- Principle of operation of axial flow compressors, characteristics of axial flow compressor
- Selection & sizing criteria; impact of gas properties on selection
- Preliminary selection using range charts
- Operating range for various types
- Typical applications
- Data sheet and main input values
- Dynamic Compressors (Component Design and Materials)
- Various construction designs for centrifugal compressors; volute, barrel, integrally geared.
- Centrifugal compressor staging
- Main components of Centrifugal Compressors
- Types of impellers
- Types of casing (volute and diffuser)
- Return channel.
- Stage seal
- Operation and Basic Components of Dry Gas Seal
- Spiral Groove Seal Versus Shrouded Pad Seal
- Spiral Groove Seal
- Safety and Environments
- Benefits of Dry Gas Seal
- Replacing Wet Seals with Dry Seals
- Multistage centrifugal compressors; axial forces and force balancing.
- Compressor auxiliary systems; lubrication, sealing, cooling, surge control and their inspection.
- Lubrication Systems
- Inlet Filtration
- Sealing Systems
- Centrifugal compressor materials
4) Centrifugal Compressor Maintenance and Testing
- Maintenance types & strategies.
- Setting maintenance frequencies and procedures
- Preparing inspection and overhaul plans and schedules
- Preparing spare parts orders using manufacturer’s documents
- Disassembly / assembly procedures for barrel compressor.
- Compressor inspection; shaft, mechanical components, seals, clearances
- Common problems associated in the rotating equipment in general.
- Removal of bearings and seals, measuring of bearing clearances.
- Strip down, removal for the rotor, balancing of rotor and rotor inspection.
- Compressor rotor repair and clean up.
- Compressor seals: labyrinth seal & dry gas seal
- Dry gas seal installation procedure
- Pre- installation checks (equipment check points)
- Seal failure analysis and troubleshooting
- Mechanical seal repair and seal faces inspection
5) Centrifugal Compressor Troubleshooting
- Guidelines for trouble-free centrifugal compressor operation
- Examples from recent failure incidents attributed to design defects, processing and manufacturing deficiencies, assembly errors, off-design or unintended service conditions, maintenance deficiencies, etc.
- Liquid Entrainment
- Compressor fouling
- Cleaning of Centrifugal Compressors
- Shaft Deflection
- Shaft Alignment
- Failure characteristics, nature of failures and the causes.
- Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational speeds
- Performance degradation
- Excessive vibration
- Surge and anti surge system
- Identifying main points on compressor curve; surge point, surge line and stonewall.
- Compressor stall & rotating stall
- Operation of compressor/system; operating point; transient conditions
- Capacity control and surge control methods
- Operation and performance checks
6) PD (positive displacement) Compressors
- Main types
- Principle of operation and application
- PD compressor performance curve; interaction with a system; pulsation dampening.
- Labyrinth Piston Compressors
- Rotary PD compressors, mainly helical and lobe types.
- Reciprocating compressor; construction, arrangement & main mechanical components; piston, piston, rod, cylinder, crankshaft, cross-head, packing.
- Compressor Valves (Operation and Maintenance Problems)
- Reciprocating compressor capacity control; loader/un-loader, pockets, clearance.
- Piston Rod Packing
- Piston rod and frame loading
- Cylinder cooling
- Non-lubricated compressors
- Reciprocating compressors maintenance
- Auxiliary system; lube oil, lubricator, cooling system
7) Overhaul and Repair of Reciprocating Compressor
- Web Deflection Measurements
- Foundation Problems and repair
- Bearing Maintenance and Replacement
- Cylinder Repair and Maintenance
- Rebuilding Compressor Pistons
- Installing Pistons on Piston Rods
- Setting Piston End Clearances
- Inspection and Refurbishment of Piston Rods
- Manufacture Techniques of Piston Rods and Parts replication
- Compressor Alignment
Presentation of Course Certificates